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SYMPOSIUM - POLYTRAUMA MANAGEMENT
National statistics of road traffic accidents in India
Manisha Ruikar
January-April 2013, 6(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.118718  
National reports published annually by Transport Research Wing of the Ministry of Road Transport & Highways and National Crimes Records Bureau of Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India describe national statistical trends and normalized indicators of road accidents, injuries & fatalities. This article highlights trends, indicators, interstate comparisons and the latest characteristics of road traffic accidents in India. While the official road traffic fatality data may be close to the actual number, the injury data are gross underestimates. As per bibliometric analysis, India contributed only 0.7 per cent papers on road traffic injuries and had less than one article on road traffic injuries per 1,000 road traffic related deaths. To be effective, policies on injury prevention and safety must be based on local evidence and research. Health professionals and their professional bodies across wide disciplines need to take an initiative for the same with active commitment.
  105,590 12,283 12
SYMPOSIUM ON PELVIC TRAUMA
Classification of pelvic fractures and its clinical relevance
Rehan Ul Haq, Ish K Dhammi, Amit Srivastava
January-April 2014, 7(1):8-13
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.133997  
Pelvic fractures are one of the common cause of mortality in polytrauma patients, especially following high velocity trauma. The management in emergency requires good clinical judgment and access to radiological modalities. There are various classifications to define the pattern of injury in pelvic fractures. Previously, fracture patterns were described on the basis of anatomical fracture pattern on radiographs. With the introduction of concept of force vector and stability defined by Pennal and Tile, which was further modified by Young and Burgess, the corrective forces required to reduce such fractures were defined. With the introduction of these newer classification systems along with the introduction of external fixators, the mortality and morbidity has significantly reduced in pelvic fractures.
  10,343 865 2
SYMPOSIUM - POLYTRAUMA MANAGEMENT
Polytrauma during pregnancy
Sarita Agrawal, Vinita Singh, Prashant Kumar Nayak, Pushpawati Thakur, Manju Agrawal, Asha Jain
January-April 2013, 6(1):63-69
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.118754  
Trauma during pregnancy is an important cause of nonobstetrical cause of maternal mortality & morbidity. Apart from type of injury affecting the maternal & fetal outcome there are several life threatening complications unique to pregnancy like abruption placentae, uterine rupture, amniotic fluid embolism, & direct fetal trauma which needs immediate interventions. Maternal assessment & management during pregnancy needs special consideration to physiological changes during pregnancy as well as fetal surveillance to improve the maternal & fetal outcome. All pregnant trauma patient needs multi disciplinary approach involving obstetrician, neonatologist, obstetric anaesthetist & trauma surgeons.
  6,875 462 -
Burns and thermal injuries
Sunita Singh, Sarita Agrawal, Manju Agrawal, Nitin Kumar Borkar, Alok C Agrawal
January-April 2013, 6(1):47-57
The burn patients need a very special care as besides skin burn; they can have associated mechanical injuries, inhalational injury and altered physiology with the risk of hypothermia. Once the patient survives from the acute phase, the appropriate wound management is the further challenge. The psychological trauma starts from time of injury to long after survival. Thus focused approach of burn patients allows critical care support, early surgical excision and closure of the burn wounds, patient and family psychosocial support, patient and family education, continuous long-term rehabilitation, re-entry into the society and reconstructive surgical needs.
  6,359 451 -
SYMPOSIUM ON PELVIC TRAUMA
Pelvic trauma in women of reproductive age
Sarita Agrawal, Prasanta Kumar Nayak, Subarna Mitra, Alok Chandra Agrawal, Asha Jain, Vinita Singh
January-April 2014, 7(1):23-28
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.134007  
The pelvic trauma can be a simple isolated one or can involve multiple skeletal structures or viscera also. Women of childbearing age who suffer from pelvic trauma have always a question in their mind regarding the future fertility and type of delivery they are going to have. The final functional outcome of pelvic injury depends on the severity of trauma and the type of surgical management. The aim of this article is to review the female pelvic anatomy, pelvic injuries, management options and future reproductive potential and other impacts of pelvic trauma in women of childbearing age.The pelvic trauma can be a simple isolated one or can involve multiple skeletal structures or viscera also. Women of childbearing age who suffer from pelvic trauma have always a question in their mind regarding the future fertility and type of delivery they are going to have. The final functional outcome of pelvic injury depends on the severity of trauma and the type of surgical management. The aim of this article is to review the female pelvic anatomy, pelvic injuries, management options and future reproductive potential and other impacts of pelvic trauma in women of childbearing age.
  6,337 424 1
SYMPOSIUM - POLYTRAUMA MANAGEMENT
Polytrauma management at the institutional level
Srinivasan Swaminathan, Praveen Kumar Neema, Alok C Agrawal
January-April 2013, 6(1):7-12
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.118727  
Polytrauma remains the leading cause of death and disability in children and young adults. Systematic organized team effort is essential for improving the survival in trauma victims. Initial assessment includes preparation, triage, rapid primary survey and resuscitation, secondary survey and definitive care. ABCDE of primary survey includes airway maintenance with cervical spine control, breathing and ventilation. Circulation and hemorrhage control, disability and exposure with prevention of hypothermia. Secondary survey includes head to toe examination of the trauma patient including a complete history and physical examination and reassessment of all vital signs. Definitive care may involve shifting the patient to radiology/operating room/intensive care unit.
  4,086 1,142 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Functional outcome in tibial spine fracture treated with arthroscopic pull through suture technique
Vikram Sapre, Samir C Dwidmuthe, Vaibhav Bagaria, Sidharth Yadav
January-April 2015, 8(1):6-10
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.183956  
Introduction: Various fixations techniques are available for fixation of tibial spine avulsion fracture. Arthroscopic assisted fixation can be achieved by screw fixation, pull through sutures, and using suture anchors. We conducted a prospective study to analyze the results of arthroscopic assisted pull through suture technique for treatment of tibial spine avulsion. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with displaced tibial spine avulsion fractures without other associated ligament injuries were included in the study. Ten patients (2 female and 8 male) with a mean age of 29.2 years (19-42 years) underwent arthroscopic assisted fixation with pull through suture technique. The postoperative results were analyzed using clinical tests, radiological evaluation and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Lysholm score and Tegner activity level. Observations and Results: The mean follow-up period was 21.7 months. We evaluated all patients at 18 months after the surgery. Radiographs showed that all fracture healed anatomically at an average duration of 3 months after surgery. At the final follow-up, all patients reported no symptoms of instability, such as giving – way episodes, clinical signs of anterior cruciate ligament deficiency were negative. The mean Lysholm score was 96.9 (range 91-100), mean IKDC score was 87.9 (range 83-93), and all patients achieved their pre injury Tegner activity levels. One patient had postoperative arthrofibrosis with the loss of terminal extension of 5° which responded to arthroscopic adhesiolysis and physiotherapy. We had no case of infection. Conclusion: Arthroscopic suture pull through a technique for tibial spine fracture is a minimally invasive technique with good functional and radiological results with a lesser risk of arthrofibrosis, infection, and need for hardware removal.
  4,190 957 2
Role of titanium elastic nailing in pediatric femoral shaft fractures
Ajit Saigal, Alok C Agrawal
January-April 2013, 6(1):70-73
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.118745  
Background: Titanium elastic nailing has emerged as a treatment of choice for stabilization of paediatric diaphyseal femoral fractures. Materials and Methods: Between 2007 and 2012, we treated 18 fractures of the femur using closed titanium elastic nailing (TEN),in pediatric patients. This study was done as a retrospective study on 18 cases of fracture of the femoral diaphysis, operated between 2007 and 2010. An assessment of the available postoperative radiographs revealed 88.8% (16 of 18) of the fractures had nails, which formed a divergent C configuration; cortical contact by both nails was visible in 77.7% (14 of 18) and the nails crossed above and below the fracture site in 83.3% (15 of 18). Results: The final outcome was adjudged as excellent when there was anatomical or near anatomical alignment with no postoperative problems in 61.1% (11 of 18) of the patients, satisfactory when there was acceptable alignment and leg length, with resolution of postoperative problems in 22.2% (4 of 18) of the cases, and poor in the presence of unacceptable alignment or leg length, with unresolved postoperative problems in 16.6% (3 of 18) of the cases. Minor or major complications occurred in seven patients. Poor outcomes were due to limb length discrepancy> 2 cm in one1 patient (5.5%), rotational deformity in one patient (5.5%), and varus malunion in one patient (5.5%). Conclusion: We recommend TEN in pediatric patients.
  4,158 374 1
To study the pattern of bacterial isolates in open fractures
Digvijay Agarwal, Rajesh Maheshwari, Atul Agrawal, Vijendra D Chauhan, Anil Juyal
January-April 2015, 8(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.183953  
Introduction: Open fractures are fairly common in developing countries. Causes of open fractures vary widely including road traffic accident, fall from height, gunshot, assault, machine injuries and others. Infection is a common complication of open fractures. Chronic osteomyelitis, nonunion, loss of function or even limb loss are some serious outcome of deep fracture site infections. Primary goal in management of open fractures is prevention of infection of bone and soft tissue by early debridement, irrigation of wound and administration of broad spectrum antibiotics with stabilization of fractures. Aim: The aim of the study is to elucidate pattern of microbial isolates in open fractures so as to form rationale antibiotic regimen for treating open fractures. Methods: 70 patients were taken into study of all ages, both the sexes with open fracture classified according to Gustilo Anderson classification. Primarily wound was examined and description of the wound was recorded with 1st culture swab taken at that time followed by 2nd culture swab on 1st dressing after debridement and 3rd culture swab if infection continues further. Culture and sensitivity reports were collected for studying pattern of bacterial isolate and their sensitivity. Results: Pre-debridement cultures are of no importance. Post-debridement cultures are important in formulating an antibiotic regime. Gram negative organisms are the most probable cause of infection. Aminoglycosides are the most sensitive group of drugs in both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Cephalosporins or quinolones should be used in combination with aminoglycosides in all cases of open fracture in our vicinity. Conclusion: All institutions and hospitals should find out the most common infecting pathogen in their environment and formulate an antibiotic policy accordingly.
  1,416 3,102 -
SYMPOSIUM FRAGILITY FRACTURES
Osteoporosis: Current review
Alok Chandra Agrawal, Roop Bhushan Kalia
May-August 2014, 7(2):101-107
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.165211  
Although hormone therapy using estrogens plus progestogens (EPT) is effective for the management of menopausal symptoms (e.g., vasomotor symptoms and vulvar/vaginal atrophy) and prevention/treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, EPT is associated with safety and tolerability concerns. A new alternative to EPT is the tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC), which partners a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) with one or more estrogens and is designed to treat menopausal symptoms and prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis without the tolerability concerns associated with EPT. The first TSEC to reach advanced clinical development is a combination of the SERM bazedoxifene (BZA) with conjugated estrogens (CE). BZA has been shown to inhibit the stimulatory activity of CE on uterine tissue and breast in vitro and in vivo. In clinical studies, BZA/CE treatment has been associated with significant improvements in menopausal symptoms including hot flushes and vulvar/vaginal atrophy and significant increases in bone mineral density, coupled with reductions in bone turnover marker levels and improvements in sleep and health-related quality of life. Additionally, BZA/CE has been shown to have a neutral effect on endometrial and breast tissue because BZA inhibits the stimulatory effects of estrogens in selective tissue fashion in these two organs. Taken together, results of these preclinical and clinical studies indicate that the benefits of estrogens for treating menopausal symptoms are maintained with BZA/CE without endometrial or breast stimulation, resulting in a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic postmenopausal women.
  1,475 2,836 -
SYMPOSIUM ON PELVIC TRAUMA
Long term outcome of surgical treatment of fractures of pelvis
Ajai Singh, Rajeshwar N Srivastava, Shah Wali, Abhishek Agarwal
January-April 2014, 7(1):37-42
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.134011  
With the advances in the trauma management, the protocol of the treatment of fractures of pelvis has evolved with control of mortality and morbidity, which is associated with these fractures. The goal of management is to achieve anatomical reduction with stable fixation of these fractures with optimum functional outcome. Despite of the better understanding of the pathophysiology of these fractures and advances in the surgical techniques to fix these fractures, the long term outcomes of these fractures are not predictable. Though in majority of patients, we may achieve the pelvic stability and pain free walking, but still we are not able to define a reproducible approach to achieve the optimum functional outcomes in all the patients with fractures of pelvis. The present paper deals with a systematic review of available literature related with controversies related with all aspect of surgical treatment of these fractures including various methods of management, various methods of fixation, techniques of fixation, determination of type and amount of pelvic stablisation and evaluation of long term functional outcome and its correlation with various factors.
  3,865 253 -
SYMPOSIUM - POLYTRAUMA MANAGEMENT
Management of spinal injuries in a patient with polytrauma
Roop Bhushan Kalia, Alok Chandra Agrawal
January-April 2013, 6(1):28-33
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.118746  
Acute spinal cord injury primarily affects young otherwise healthy people and is a major cause of patient morbidity and a source of significant health care expenditure. The priority in the management of spinal injury in a patient with polytrauma is to minimize secondary mechanical or physiological insults to the spinal cord. Identification of spinal injuries during initial trauma evaluation is challenging, as patients often have a reduced level of consciousness due to other injuries or are under the influence of sedative and/or analgesic medication. The management of suspected spinal cord injury in patients with polytrauma involves early immobilization of the whole spine and the institution of measures to prevent secondary injury from hypoxia, hypoperfusion or further mechanical disturbance. All spinal injuries should be considered unstable and incomplete until proven otherwise. Careful and informed neurological assessment, together with appropriate plain radiography, will identify the majority of spinal injuries. Early surgical decompression should be considered. Improvements in motor vehicle safety and traffic regulations can result in a marked reduction in spinal cord injury due to motor vehicle accidents with significant reduction in mortality attributable to spinal injury. A robust system of care is the best assurance of good health outcomes and reasonable health for people with spinal cord Injury.
  3,475 343 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Role of proximal femoral nailing in fracture neck of femur
Chandra Prakash Pal, Harish Kumar, Pulkesh Singh, Kaushal Kumar Pruthi
January-April 2014, 7(1):59-63
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.134020  
Background: The present study was done (a) to assess the role of proximal femoral nailing in the femoral neck fractures. (b) To assess the effect of early weight bearing after stabilization with proximal femoral nail. (c) To assess the incidence of complications in femoral neck fractures treated by proximal femoral nail. Materials and Methods: The present prospective study was conducted in the department of Orthopedics, of this institute from September 2007 to August 2009, which is a tertiary care center. A total of 22 patients of fracture neck of femur were included in the study. Only patients with basal and transcervical type of fractures with viable femoral head were included in the study. Patients with subcapital type of fracture were excluded from the study. All the patients were followed regularly for a period of two years. These fractures were fixed with proximal femoral nail. The final outcome measurement was done according to Harris hip scoring (HHS) method of functional assessment. Results: Sixty three percent of cases of our study presented with non union and 37% showed osseous union of which three were of basal type and five were of transcervical type. Out of the 22 patients assessed according to Harris hip score only 27.24% cases showed good result whereas 63.56% cases showed poor results. Results based on the anatomical type of fracture showed basal type of fractures with good results of union while 73.68% of the transcervical type of fractures showed poor results. Fair results were seen in 10.25% while only 15.26% of the patients showed good results in transcervical type of fractures. Good results obtained in transcervical type of fracture were the ones associated with subtrochanteric fracture femur. The purely transcervical type of fracture showed fair results in only two patients while the rest showed non union. Conclusions: After conduction of this study on results of the treatment of intracapsular fracture neck of femur by proximal femoral nailing we conclude that (A) proximal femoral nail is useful in basal type of fracture and in those types of transcervical fractures which are associated with ipsilateral subtrochanteric fracture. (B) Proximal femoral nail should be avoided in pure transcervical fracture neck of femur. (C) As it is a small study a further study for transcervical fractures is required.
  3,499 235 -
CASE REPORTS
Docking site augmentation followed by Ilizarov's distraction osteogenesis
Mohammad Ruhullah, Dipak Shrestha, Bigyan Bhandari, Prem Shahi
January-April 2013, 6(1):87-91
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.118751  
Open fractures of the tibia/fibula are common in renal tubular acidosis patients and may be fraught with complications such as malunion, delayed union, non-union, infection, deformity, bone loss and dead and necrotic bones. The Ilizarov method, as originally described for lengthening, treatment of non-union and bone transport, does not involve the use of bone-grafting at the docking site to aid rapid healing. The most common complication is non-union of the docking site. In this report, we present a case of 18-year-old man with open fracture tibia/fibula treated initially with unilateral external fixation and followed by Ilizarov's distraction osteogenesis technique for skeletal defect created after adequate debridement and resection of the necrotic bone as a result of open fracture. We aimed to demonstrate the success of docking site augmentation of iliac crest cancellous bone graft has been shown to rapid consolidation, decrease the rate of non-union and decrease the time of prolonged fixator use with respect to patient compliance managing complex frame adjustments.
  3,371 259 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Percutaneous lateral Kirschner wire fixation in pediatric supracondylar fractures of humerus
Ramji Lal Sahu
January-April 2013, 6(1):78-83
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.118749  
Aim: This prospective study was conducted to know the outcome of percutaneous lateral pinning in the management of displaced supracondylar fracture of humerus in children. Settings and Designs: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: Eighty five patients with displaced supracondylar fractures admitted between July 2005 and July 2010 were recruited into the study. All patients were operated under general anesthesia within 24 h after trauma using the percutaneous 2-lateral pin fixation (n = 85). Results were analyzed using Flynn's criteria. All patients were followed up to 6 months post-operatively. Results: Eighty five displaced supracondylar fractures of humerus, aged between 1½ year and 13 years, were treated using close reduction and percutaneous Kirschner (K) wire fixation under the c-arm image intensifier. Above elbow plaster of paris back slab was applied in all cases for at least 4 weeks. The slab and K-wires were removed after 4 weeks and elbow range of motion exercise was started. 68.23% had excellent, 29.40% good, 1.17% fair and 1.17% had poor results at 8 th weeks, which was improved to 91.75% excellent, 7.05% good, 1.17% fair and no poor result at final follow-up. There was no iatrogenic neurological injury either for the ulnar or for the radial nerves. Five patients developed superficial pin tract infection post-operatively and were treated conservatively with good healing and no long-term sequelae. Conclusion: Closed reduction and percutaneous lateral pinning proved an efficient, reliable, and safe method in the treatment of displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children.
  3,149 367 -
SYMPOSIUM - POLYTRAUMA MANAGEMENT
Damage control in orthopaedic patients
Alok Chandra Agrawal, Roop Bhushan Kalia
January-April 2013, 6(1):23-27
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.118742  
It has been found that many orthopaedic patients who have sustained multiple injuries benefit from the early total care of major bone fractures. However, early surgery has been found to be harmful to some multiply injured patients. Damage control orthopaedics is an approach that contains and stabilizes orthopaedic injuries so that the patient's overall physiology can improve. Its purpose is to avoid worsening of the patient's condition by the "second hit" of a major orthopaedic procedure and to delay definitive fracture repair until a time when the overall condition of the patient is optimized. The article deals with principles involve in damage control orthopaedics pertaining to diagnosis and management.
  3,048 397 -
SYMPOSIUM ON PELVIC TRAUMA
Introduction to pelvic injury and its acute management
Purnendu Saxena, Harshal Sakale, Alok C. Agrawal
January-April 2014, 7(1):1-7
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.133995  
Human pelvis is a very stable structure. It achieves its stability from the surrounding musculature and ligaments. Hence, pelvic disruption requires high energy trauma specifically in young people. It is usually associated with multisystem injuries due to its close proximity to the vital structures. Mortality in pelvic injuries is mostly due to the uncontrolled hemorrhage and the late mortality due to associated multisystem injuries, multiorgan failure, and sepsis. Acute management focus on the complex pelvic trauma it includes the systemic control of hemorrhage, pelvic stabilization with external pelvic binder or external fixator, use of pelvic angiography, and embolization and preperitoneal packing. Every institute should develop its own protocol depending on facilities available.
  2,984 431 -
Surgical approaches of the pelvis
Roop Bhushan Kalia, Alok Chandra Agrawal
January-April 2014, 7(1):14-18
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.134002  
Fractures of the pelvis are difficult injuries to treat surgically. Thorough knowledge of the surgical anatomy is a prerequisite to be able to perform the surgical procedure safely as major neurovascular bundles and viscera are at risk of iatrogenic injury with disastrous consequences which are fortunately rare- but can happen. The approaches ideally need to be learned ideally first on cadavers and then under supervision till thorough familiarity is attained. The learning curve is steep; however it should not dissuade surgeons and once learned can allow for safe internal fixation to be performed in a large number of patients.
  3,037 353 -
SYMPOSIUM - POLYTRAUMA MANAGEMENT
Damage control in thoracic trauma
Nitin Kumar Kashyap
January-April 2013, 6(1):13-16
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.118733  
Management of thoracic trauma is an integral part in the decision making process for damage control in a case of polytrauma. Approximately 25% of civilian trauma deaths are caused by thoracic trauma and many of these deaths can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and correct management. The article discusses in brief a protocol for management of polytrauma with special emphasis towards thoracic trauma.
  3,009 374 -
Polytrauma management in children
Nitinkumar Bhajandas Borkar, Sunita Singh, Alok C Agrawal
January-April 2013, 6(1):58-62
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.118755  
Trauma is still the leading cause of death in children above one year of age even in countries with the most advanced medical services. Multiple trauma is always more than the sum of the single injuries; it should be considered as a systemic disease. Injury mechanisms vary with age. In infants non - accidental injuries (NAI) are common and are at higher risk for sustaining injury in the home environment. Fall is also major a cause of injury and home is the common place of injury. In caring for injured children the health care provider must be aware of the unique anatomic and physiological characteristics. This article is focused on these aspects only.
  2,993 350 -
SYMPOSIUM ON PELVIC TRAUMA
Neglected pelvic fractures: An overview of literature
Ramesh Kumar Sen, Tarun Goyal, Sujit Kumar Tripathy
January-April 2014, 7(1):43-47
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.134013  
Despite numerous advancement in surgical techniques and better understanding on pelvic injuries, it is not uncommon to see neglected pelvic fractures in India. The pelvic injuries are either neglected by the patients themselves by late presentation or poor compliance to treatment or sometimes even neglected by the surgeons by inadequate treatment. The usual manifestations of neglected pelvic fractures are either a nonunion or a malunion. Pelvic nonunion or malunion results in huge disability to the patients. These disabilities manifest in the form of pain, leg length discrepancy, sitting or standing imbalance and even sexual or excretory dysfunction. Treatment of such old injuries is extremely difficult. Correction of malunion may be performed in stage wise procedure with multiple osteotomy. The nonunion may be treated with bone grafting and plate stabilization. This literature review focused on the manifestations, treatment and residual problem of such pelvic malunions and nonunions
  2,775 356 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Use of dorsalis pedis artery flap in the coverage of distal lower leg defects
Sohaib Akhtar, Fahud Khurram, Rampukar Choudhary, A. H. Khan, Imran Ahmad, Ehsan Rashidi
January-April 2014, 7(1):69-72
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.134023  
Aim: To evaluate the role of dorsalis pedis artery flap in the coverage of distal lower leg defect. Materials and Methods: a retrospective review of patients who underwent soft tissue coverage over distal lower leg with dorsalis pedis artery flap was performed. A total of 16 patients were identified and included in this study. Soft tissue defects ranged in size from 3 × 7 cm to 6 × 10 cm were located over lower one-third of leg either, anteriorly (n = 8), posteriorly (n = 4), laterally (n = 2), or medially (n = 2). Associated injuries included open fractures of only tibia (n = 5), fibula (n = 2), both tibia and fibula (n = 3), or calcaneum (n = 2). Results: all flaps survived uneventfully except in three cases there was mild venous congestion in the distal part of the flap, two resolved within 4 days without further surgical intervention but one required skin grafting. Three patients developed donor site problems. Wound coverage was achieved in a mean duration of 14 days (range: 11 to 30 days). Conclusion: The dorsalis pedis artery flap is a reliable procedure to cover difficult wound such as distal lower leg.
  2,812 253 2
Surgical treatment for Salter-Harris type III fracture of the medial femoral condyle: A prospective study
Ramji Lal Sahu
January-April 2014, 7(1):73-77
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.134024  
Background: Salter-Harris type III fracture involves the medial or lateral condyle of femur. The fracture line usually exits through - the inter-condylar notch. These fractures are not common but have a high rate of complications and only very few cases have been reported. Objective: The aim of the surgery is to minimize the complications of epiphyseal injury by early fracture Fixation. Design: A 28 months prospective follow-up study. Setting: Unicentric study, operating on a total of 22 patients during a period of 5 years. Materials and Methods: From July 2005 to July 2010, 22 patients (16 males and 6 females) were recruited from Emergency and outpatient department having closed and open Salter-Harris types III fracture of the medial femoral condyle of the distal femur. All patients were operated under general or spinal anesthesia. The mean follow-up period was 28 months. Results: All children achieved union in a mean time of 10 weeks (range from 6 to 16 weeks) depending on the type of fracture pattern. Full weight bearing was possible in a mean time of 8.8 weeks. Mean duration of hospital stay was 9.8 days. The mean follow-up period was 28 months (17-48 months). Complications were recorded in 3 (13.64%) patients and included 2 Cases of insignificant limb shortening of 1 cm and 1.5 cm and 1 case of significant shortening of 2 cm. The results were excellent in 86.36 and good in 13.64% patients. Conclusion: Early anatomical reduction and fixation with screws provide satisfactory results and minimal complications.
  2,815 178 -
SYMPOSIUM - POLYTRAUMA MANAGEMENT
Comprehensive contemporary management of otolaryngologic trauma in polytrauma patients
Rupa Mehta, Nitin Nagarkar, Ripudaman Arora
January-April 2013, 6(1):34-39
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.118748  
Patients with polytrauma can sustain significant injuries to the ears , nose and neck. Injuries in this region can present with life threatening bleeding and airway problems. Prompt and optimum management of these injuries is required for a successful outcome. In this article we enumerate the various otolaryngologic injuries and their management.
  2,731 228 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Outcome of intertrochanteric fractures treated with proximal femoral nail: A prospective study
Preetesh Endigeri, OB Pattanashetty, Dayanand B Banapatti, Arravind Pillai, T Ullas
January-April 2015, 8(1):25-29
DOI:10.4103/0975-7341.183951  
Introduction: Intertrochanteric fractures are common in the elderly especially with the increase in the incidence of osteoporosis. Various studies have shown good results when treated with intramedullary devices such as the proximal femoral nail (PFN) while other studies have shown high rates of complications. Aim: To study the outcome of intertrochanteric fractures treated with proximal femoral nailing by using Kyle's criteria. Materials and Methods: The study involved fifty cases of intertrochanteric fractures of femur that were treated with PFN. Fractures were classified using Orthopaedic Trauma Association classification. Patients were followed up at 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months and results were evaluated using Kyle's criteria. Results: The study included fifty patients, 32 males and 18 females of age 38-94 years with an average of 57 years. Excellent and good results were found in 44 patients (88%). Intra- and post-operative complications were found in 12 patients (24%). Conclusion: Good fracture reduction is critical in the management intertrochanteric fractures with PFN. Proximal femoral nailing is an excellent treatment option for unstable intertrochanteric fractures.
  2,559 385 -
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