|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 40-43
Evaluation of surgical management of Rockwood Type 3 acromioclavicular joint injuries by autogenous semitendinosus graft ligament reconstruction: A retrospective study
Ashish Agrawal1, Naveen Sharma2, Shailendra Pratap Singh3, Varun Singh4
1 Department of Orthopaedics, R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India
2 Department of Orthopaedics, Apollo Hospitals, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
3 Department of Orthopaedics, Metro Hospitals, Faridabad, Haryana, India
4 Department of Orthopaedics, RUHS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
|Date of Web Publication||17-Aug-2018|
Dr. Ashish Agrawal
60, Mahashweta Nagar, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: As many as 40% of the shoulder injuries involve acromioclavicular (AC) joint. AC joint injuries have been classified by Rockwood into six types. Treatment of Type 3 AC joint injuries has been controversial. We present a series of 15 cases of Rockwood Type 3 AC joint injuries treated surgically with a method that addresses both superior- inferior as well as anteroposterior AC joint instability. Materials and Methods: Fifteen cases of Rockwood Type 3 AC joint injuries presented to us between November 2011 and November 2015. There were 11 male and four female patients. All patients were treated surgically with the reconstruction of AC and coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments using autogenous semitendinosus graft. The patients were evaluated pre operatively and postoperatively by radiological and functional (using American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons [ASES] and Constant-Murley scores) methods. Results: X-rays done immediate postoperatively and at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively showed good maintenance of the reduction of the AC joint. The ASES score improved from a preoperative score of 41 to a postoperative score of 81 and 95 at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Constant-Murley score improved from a preoperative score of 42 to a post operative score of 79 and 93 at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Conclusion: Surgical management of Rockwood Type 3 AC joint injuries by AC and CC ligament reconstructions using autogenous semitendinosus graft leads to good functional results.
Keywords: Acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments, acromioclavicular joint, autogenous semitendinosus graft
|How to cite this article:|
Agrawal A, Sharma N, Singh SP, Singh V. Evaluation of surgical management of Rockwood Type 3 acromioclavicular joint injuries by autogenous semitendinosus graft ligament reconstruction: A retrospective study. J Orthop Traumatol Rehabil 2018;10:40-3
|How to cite this URL:|
Agrawal A, Sharma N, Singh SP, Singh V. Evaluation of surgical management of Rockwood Type 3 acromioclavicular joint injuries by autogenous semitendinosus graft ligament reconstruction: A retrospective study. J Orthop Traumatol Rehabil [serial online] 2018 [cited 2021 Sep 20];10:40-3. Available from: https://www.jotr.in/text.asp?2018/10/1/40/239258
| Introduction|| |
As many as 40% of the shoulder injuries involve acromioclavicular (AC) joint. AC joint injuries have been classified by Rockwood into six types.,, A review of literature shows that the treatment of the Type 3 AC joint injuries has been controversial, with some preferring conservative management of these injuries, while others have preferred one or the other surgical methods for the management of these injuries.,,,, Surgical management of these injuries by anatomic coracoclavicular (CC) ligament reconstruction , using a semitendinosus autograft achieves stability in superior-inferior direction; however, anteroposterior instability of the AC joint persists due to torn AC ligaments. There are no many clinical studies of anatomical CC along with AC ligament reconstruction available in the literature.,,, We present a series of 15 cases of Rockwood Type 3 AC joint injuries treated surgically with a method that addresses both superior- inferior as well as anteroposterior AC joint instability.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Fifteen cases of Rockwood Type 3 AC joint injuries presented to us betweenNovember 2011 and November 2015. The patients presented to us between 15 days and 2 months after the injury, with a mean period of 36 days. Therewere 11 male and four female patients [Chart 1]. All the patients selected in the study had closed AC joint injury with no associated injuries elsewhere in the body. All the patients were treated surgically with the reconstruction of AC and CC ligaments using autogenous semitendinosus graft. Mean surgical time was 1 h 15 min. Average blood loss was 150 mL. X-ray evaluation of the patients was done preoperatively [Figure 1] and at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively. All the patients were evaluated functionally using American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons [ASES] and Constant-Murley scores preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The patients with a minimum follow-up period of 12 months were included in the study.
Patient was placed in supine position with ipsilateral shoulder and knee painted and draped. The graft was harvested under tourniquet control by taking a longitudinal incision 1 cm medial to the tibial tubercle. Blunt dissection was done till the Sartorius fascia was reached. This fascia was incised to reach the conjoint tendon. Semitendinosus was separated from the gracilis, and the accessory adhesion bands were cut. With the help of tendon stripper, semitendinosus graft was harvested. The graft was approximately 30 cm in length. The graft was denuded of all the muscular tissues and whipstitch suturing was done at the free end and the donor site was closed. The graft was pretensioned and was safely secured on the sterile trolley.
A curved incision was given starting from the acromion to the coracoid process [Figure 2]. Blunt dissection was done to expose the clavicle, coracoid, and acromion, taking care of hemostasis. AC dislocation was identified and the instability was confirmed in both the anteroposterior and superior-inferior plane in a gentle manner. With the help of 4.5-mm drill bit, a hole was made for the conoid ligament at around 3 cm from the AC joint slightly posterior to the midline of the clavicle from above downward. Similarly, a hole was made for the trapezoid ligament at around 1.5 cm from the AC joint slightly anterior to the midline on the clavicle from above downward to correctly reproduce the anatomic location of the respective ligaments. A drill hole was made in the acromion with the help of the 4.5-mm drill bit from anteromedial to posterolateral direction for the reconstruction of AC ligament. The semitendinosus graft was then taken and passed beneath the coracoid process, and the two ends passed superiorly through the holes on the clavicle made previously. The lateral part of the graft was then taken further laterally and passed through the hole made in the acromion (from anterior to posterior direction) and was taken back to the clavicle to meet the medial end of the graft. Both the ends of the graft were tightly held, and stability of the clavicle in both anteroposterior and superior-inferior plane was rechecked. After confirming the AC joint stability, the two ends of the graft were sutured to each other with the help of nonabsorbable sutures. A 2-mm smooth Kirschner wire (K-wire) was used to transfix the AC joint to provide additional support to the graft [Figure 3]. Closure was done in layers. ThePatients were followed up at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Suture removal was done at 2 weeks. Postoperatively, the shoulder was immobilized in a sling for 6 weeks after which the K-wire was removed and range of motion exercises were started. Strengthening exercises were started at 3 months postoperatively.
|Figure 3: Intraoperative picture showing semitendinosus graft reconstruction with Kirschner wire fixation of acromioclavicular joint|
Click here to view
| Results|| |
Immediate postoperative X-rays of the shoulder showed good reduction of the AC joint. X-rays done at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively showed good maintenance of the reduction of the AC joint [Figure 4]. The ASES score improved from a preoperative score of 41 to a postoperative score of 81 and 95 at 6 and 12 months, respectively [Chart 2]. Constant-Murley score improved from a preoperative score of 42 to a postoperative score of 79 and 93 at 6 and 12 months, respectively [Chart 3]. No case had postoperative wound complications. No case required revision surgery.
| Discussion|| |
Management of Rockwood Type 3 AC joint injuries has long been controversial. Although many surgical procedures have been reported in the literature to manage these injuries, it has been difficult to achieve good long- term functional outcome. Hardware prominence and loss of fixation have been a common complications of many procedures. Jones et al. first described the use of autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft for reconstructing the CC ligament. However, they did not reconstruct the AC ligament or attempt to restore the anatomical configuration of the trapezoid and conoid ligaments. Lee et al. biomechanically compared the strength and stiffness of the native CC ligament with that of reconstructions with AC ligament or free tendon grafts (semitendinosus, gracilis, or long-toe extensor tendons). They reported that all tendon grafts had strengths equivalent to the native CC ligament strength, and all were significantly stronger (P < 0.05) than the AC ligament reconstruction. Fukuda et al. showed that AC ligaments provide support in the anteroposterior plane contributing to the stability at physiological and pathological loading. Urist showed that the AC ligament was the primary restraint to the anteroposterior displacement of the AC joint. Lee et al. showed that the CC ligaments provide superior and posterior stability and AC ligament provides the anterior stability. Debski et al. showed biomechanically that the conoid and trapezoid ligaments act separately but synergistically in restraining anteroposterior and superior loading of the AC joint. Management of Rockwood Type 3 AC joint injuries with anatomic CC ligaments reconstruction along with AC ligament reconstruction with autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft provides good long-term stability and has been associated with good long-term functional outcome. As the graft used is autogenous in this procedure, allograft compatibility and rejection problems do not arise. The semitendinosus autograft is easy to harvest and if properly harvested is of adequate length to be used as a single graft for this procedure. Furthermore, the strength of the semitendinosus graft is good enough to maintain good long-term reduction of the AC joint, thereby allowing good long-term functional outcome. Thus, reconstruction of both the CC and AC ligaments with autogenous semimembranosus graft can be taken as a treatment of choice in the treatment of Rockwood Type 3 AC joint injuries.
| Conclusion|| |
Our series shows that in addition to the anatomic CC ligament reconstruction, addressing the AC ligament instability to achieve stability in both superior-inferior and anteroposterior plane leads to good functional results in Rockwood Type 3 AC joint injuries.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]